Guide

Pregnancy at work

Employees' right to paid time off for antenatal care

All pregnant employees have the right to reasonable paid time off to attend antenatal care appointments. Antenatal care covers not only medical examinations related to the pregnancy but also, for example, relaxation classes and parentcraft classes.

However, the right to time off only applies if the appointment is advised by a midwife, health visitor or registered medical practitioner (eg a doctor).

Therefore, you are entitled to ask for evidence of antenatal appointments - except in the case of the very first appointment.

You can request that the employee shows you:

  • written documentation from a registered medical practitioner, a midwife or a health visitor confirming that she is pregnant
  • an appointment card or some other document showing that an appointment has been made

Payment during time off

You must pay the employee her normal hourly rate during the period of time off for antenatal care.

Calculate the rate by dividing the amount of a week's pay by the number of the employee's normal working hours in a week. The normal working hours will usually be set out in her contract of employment.

If her weekly working hours vary, you should average them over the previous 12 complete working weeks. If the employee has yet to complete 12 weeks' service, estimate the average in light of:

  • what could be reasonably expected from her contract of employment
  • the work pattern of any fellow employees in comparable jobs

Overtime is counted only if it is required and contractually guaranteed.

Labour Relations Agency (LRA) guidance on time off work rights and responsibilities.

Complaints relating to time off for antenatal care

A pregnant employee could bring an unlawful discrimination and/or unfair dismissal claim to a tribunal if you:

  • dismiss her or treat her unfairly because she tried to exercise her right to time off for antenatal care
  • unreasonably refuse her time off for antenatal care
  • deny her normal rate of pay during such time off

A pregnant employee can bring a claim regardless of whether or not:

  • she actually has exercised the right to paid time off for antenatal care
  • that right has actually been infringed

All she has to have done is act in good faith in seeking to assert the right.

See pregnant workers, dismissal and discrimination.

Time off to accompany to antenatal appointments

Following changes to the Work and Families Act in April 2015, both employees and Agency workers, who have a qualifying relationship with the pregnant woman or her expected child, have the right to unpaid time off to attend up to two antenatal appointments. 

A person in a qualifying relationship would include:

  • the husband or civil partner of the pregnant woman
  • a person who lives with the pregnant woman in an enduring family relationship (including same sex couples)
  • the father of the expected child
  • either of the intended parents who are expecting a child from a surrogate mother and who are eligible for and intend to apply for a Parental Order (or have obtained such an Order)

The time off for each appointment is capped at 6.5 hours.